Category Archives: Uncategorized

Understanding the Potential Risks and Hazards Associated Within Permit Required Confined Spaces

Understanding the Potential Risks and Hazards Associated Within Permit Required Confined Spaces

Many workplaces contain confined spaces that can present real or potential dangers to employees who must enter the space for work purposes. The information presented below will assist employers and employees in understanding the requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees in general industry, from the hazards of entry into permit required confined spaces.

OSHA standard 1910.146 permit required confined spaces, defines a confined space as –

  • An area large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work
  • Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit
  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy

A confined space is not limited to small areas such as manholes and ditches, but includes larger areas such as tanks, vessels and silos.

Working within a confined space requires a permit if the area has the potential as being a serious safety or health hazard. It is the employers responsibility to evaluate work spaces, to determine if it is a permit required confined space (PRCS)

If a confined space is designated as PRCS, then it is up to the employer to inform its employees, by posting danger signs or by other equally effective means of notification. The employer must also take the steps in preventing its employees from entering the space until a written space program is produced. The permit program must be available at the time of entry to all authorised entrants, or their authorised representatives – by posting it at the entry portal, or by any other effective means. The entrants can therefore confirm that pre-entry preparations have been completed.

Before an employee can enter a permit space, the internal atmosphere must be tested with an instrument that detects oxygen content, flammable gases and vapours, and potential toxic air contaminants. Employers are also required to –

  • Define hazards in permit spaces,
  • Have a confined space entry protocol, and a written permit program, train and equip employees to complete tasks in particular permit spaces, only allow authorised entrants into the permit space, and appoint employees attendants to monitor permit space and enforce entry rules.

An attendant is an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces whose job it is to monitor authorized entrants, as well as perform all attendant duties assigned in the employees permit space program.

Confined spaces can possess many hazards. A permit required confined space, means the confined space has one or more of the following characteristics -

  • Hazardous atmosphere
  • Engulfing potential
  • Trapping or asphyxiated configuration
  • Other recognised serious safety hazards

The atmosphere of a confined space, can be hazardous and potentially prevent escape without help or cause illness or even death. There are three types of hazards -

  • Oxygen deficient
  • Flammable
  • Toxic

Oxygen deficiency is the atmosphere having less than normal percentage oxygen found in normal air. Oxygen is safe when it is between 19.5% and 23.5%. When the level of oxygen falls below 16%, judgement and co-ordination suffer and difficulty breathing and drowsiness occur. At 12% a person become unconscious and death occurs at 6%.

The level of oxygen can fall if the space contains iron, which uses oxygen to form rust, methane, which pushes the oxygen out of an area, and carbon dioxide which absorbs oxygen.

If employees are required to enter into an oxygen deficient confined space, they should always wear an industry approved air respirator to supply fresh, breathable air. Confined spaces may often contain gases, vapours, mists or dusts that are flammable. The risks of a fire may not be obvious and only testing can show if it contains traces of flammable substances.

Substances in the air can be ignited by –

  • Smoking
  • Grinding or welding
  • Unapproved electrical equipment,
  • Any kind of metal friction, or
  • Static electricity

Inhalation of the atmosphere can be toxic. If a substance exceeds it permissible exposure limit, it has the potential to cause illness or death. Inhaling just a little of some substances can cause irritation to the respiratory or nervous system. Such toxins include –

  • Carbon monoxide, which replaces the oxygen in the blood and can cause death.
  • Hydrogen sulphide, which can cut off breathing. It can however, be easily detected by it’s rotten egg smell
  • Sulphur dioxide , which is very poisonous, even in small amounts. Dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, or headaches are good signs that the confined space should be evacuated immediately

Another hazardous a confined space may have is the potential for engulfment. This happens when an employee is trapped, buried or smothered by a liquid of flowing solids, such as grain or sand.

Even if the material doesn’t cover the head, the pressure on the chest can be enough to prevent breathing or damage internal organs. Some confined spaces have an “entrapping design”. Employees can be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section.

Confined spaces may also contain physical hazards, such as moving machinery parts, build up of heat, falls from entry or exit ladders, noise from machinery, and electrocution from live wires.

Employee training is a very important part of safety in confined spaces. It is up to each employer to maintain a safe working environment. Each employers permit required confined space safety program must ensure that all authorized entrants know the hazards of the confined space they’re about to enter, use proper equipment, communicate with the attendant as necessary and alert them whenever a potential dangerous situation or prohibited condition arises.









Effectively Manage A Online Business After Looking At This


There are lots of rewards which are derived from working at home, including flexible hours and calling the shots. Also you can go with a niche that you are passionate about. You can deduct the expense of your home-based business Internet costs. Ensure you put real efforts into making your own customers your number one priority. Enough time it will take to hold current customers returning is far under that needed to convert and find new clients to purchase. A cheerful customer base will return again and again. Check out any employee that you want to hire for your house business. In the event you can’t choose which product you would like to promote in your home business, consider so that it is something you employ or could use. Identifying a certain require is step one to selecting a successful product. It could more likely be important to others also if you want certain products. You ought to obtain a separate PO Box setup for all your business mailings. Don’t ever publish your real address on the Internet under any circumstances. This ensures your identity along with the identity of your respective family. You will likely have to find individuals that would like to try joining and form a network that suits your distinct needs. Even though these individuals may own an enterprise inside a different field, others which can be home based business owners too could have a great deal in normal with you. It is essential to investigate the appropriate range of prices, prior to deciding to try selling. Usually do not talk negatively about others to garner business, simply make yourself look really good! You will find many home-based business ownership online. As you may not would like to fall prey to the scams, though take note. Some websites sell information that could be gained elsewhere totally free, and some sell worthless information.You can find complex scams at the same time that take your cash for a number of things. Affiliates can be used to assist you to sell your product. You could potentially even join affiliate marketing programs already available and look to advertise products to your own. This is a great method for you to construct your income without needing to do any perseverance. Write an intensive business strategy plan for your own home business. If you want to.You ought to update your game plan every now and then and again, you have the capacity to change this course of action. Taking calculated risks can be a substantial income. Testing out new stuff brings in new customers and increase your profits. You don’t understand what strategies will increase your business if you time. Speak with an attorney prior to deciding to establish your business. Different states have their own own unique laws regarding home businesses. Deposit your instalments the initial moment you obtain them. Don’t wait and deposit payments practice it at the conclusion of a few days always take payments on the bank the same day you get them. Only take a teller to produce deposits rather than ATM, to be able to verify how the money has actually been deposited. You must be honest with yourself if you believe your home-based business will be. Do you have a cutting-edge product with long term commercial potential? Is it possible to run your small business as being an honest businessman or businesswoman? It could be extremely simple to get buried with your work whenever you live and work from home. It doesn’t have to be intimidating, though operating a home-based business is hard work. Laying out a plan and staying on it will assist you to have a business that is and thrives enjoyable. You can find it to be quite rewarding to become the boss and have convenient hours. The following tips can really help!